Through gardening, you can help your own honeybees or, if you don’t have a hive, attract more pollinators to what you grow. With a thoughtful mix of flowering bulbs, annuals and perennials (not to mention some diligence) you’ll see good results. That said, gardening for honeybees does differ from regular flower gardening in some key ways. Understanding how will boost your success.
See Like a Bee
Because bees can detect ultraviolet light, some flowers that look perfectly plain to us feature all sorts of come-hither markings that honeybees find irresistible. What’s more, although you might be drawn to the fanciest new hybrids, foraging bees might not be. That’s because, in exchange for that novel color combination or doubled set of petals, something else can be lost along the way—and sometimes that “something” is the quality or amount of pollen and nectar the flower can provide. To grow flowers will offer bees the maximum benefit, choose open-pollinated, heirloom varieties whenever possible.
Come planting time, you should pack the same variety of flowers together in a single, large area, because flowers release floral compounds that create scent patches. These scent patches attract pollinators, and the larger the scent patch, the more attractive it can be.
Be Adaptable Regarding Plans
It’s worth noting, too, that installing any kind of garden isn’t quite as simple as it once was. More extreme weather events such as heavy spring flooding, summer heat, drought, and increased storm activity have complicated matters, so even experienced gardeners must rethink some of their favorite, go-to plants because of global climate change.
“Climate change has caused a lot of unpredictability,” explains Moya Andrews, author of Perennials Short and Tall and host of “Focus on Flowers.” The Indiana-based gardener continues, “You once knew that by March you’d have daffodils and forsythia. And probably by late October you’d have your first killing frost, but, now, you can’t really be sure.”
How have your weather patterns changed? Visit the National Centers for Environmental Information to look up daily summaries during a specified date range for your ZIP Code or city.
Fortunately, although they require more work, there are ways to compensate for increasingly volatile weather patterns in the garden. These, in turn, can further insulate honeybees from the effects of a warming planet. For example, in potentially water-logged sections, you could erect raised beds. And in dry zones? Add compost, use plants with deep tap roots such as coneflower, and mulch to preserve moisture.
Map and Identify
To start your plan, draw an overhead sketch of your honeybee garden. Do you lack confidence in your drafting skills? Print a geological survey image or Google Maps satellite view of your property instead. Include any trees, shrubs and flowerbeds you’ve already established, noting when and for how long these typically bloom. Transfer these bloom times to a calendar, and then list the months that include little to no nectar availability.
Also consider the size of additional planting areas you wish to add for your pollinator garden. Sketch these new areas onto your map. If your region is increasingly subject to hot, dry summers, you should also consider how much access to water you’ll need in order to keep your new pollinator plantings alive.
This is also the time to identify microclimates on your property. Does the area that will contain your new pollinator garden have low spots that flood, or extra hot, dry areas? Mark your map accordingly.
Know the Power of Flowers
As a rule, clusters of flowers comprising larger flower heads—think yarrow, lavender and some sunflower varieties—are especially attractive to bees. When choosing what to plant, remember that many hardiness zones have shifted over time. Examine seed packets and plant tags to ensure their requirements match your microclimate. Also, choose only pesticide-free products.
Check your list of months with little or no nectar availability and start filling in the gaps. Need winter-flowering plants? Try witch hazel, snowdrops and winter aconite. For spring? Consider lilacs, bluebells, daffodils, hyacinths, lily-of-the-valley, alliums, irises and poppies. In summer, black-eyed Susans, beebalm, catnip, mint, purple coneflower, salvia and verbena are invaluable. And try asters, Joe-pye weed, pineapple sage, sedum, stonecrop and zinnias for fall. Have volunteers such as goldenrod and ironweed? Let these weedy-but-wonderful honeybee resources flourish.
Finally, bees also need water. Line a shallow saucer with pebbles and fill it with water to create a “bee bath.” Including a pollinator garden sign to educate passers-by is also a nice touch.