From the type of honeybees you choose to the number of beehives you manageâand how you choose to manage themâthere is seemingly endless variability in beekeeping. For new and expanding beekeepers, deciding which kind of beehive to use is yet another variable in play.
Your beekeeping goals, local climate and budget are a few factors to consider as you weigh your options. Your equipmentâs interchangeability is paramount, too.
Michael Bush, author of The Practical Beekeeper book series, primarily uses modified Langstroth beehives. âI run all eight-frame, medium Langstroth boxes,â he says. âFull of honey, they donât weigh over 50 pounds, and I use them for everything.â
Well, nearly everything. Bush also keeps bees in some top bar hives, Slovenian hives, Flow hives and a Huber observation hive. But he doesnât necessarily recommend mixing and matching your own beehives to such a degree.Â
âIf youâve got five different kinds of hives, what are you going to do when this one is queenless and you need a frame of brood?â he asks. âWith five different kinds of hives, you donât have any interchangeable partsâunless you went out of your way to make sure they were all interchangeable.â
The Langstroth Hive
Interchangeabilityâand the ability to easily expand colony size as neededâare just part of the appeal of Langstroth beehives for David T. Peck. Peck holds a Ph.D. from Cornell Universityâs department of neurobiology and behavior and serves as director of research and education at Betterbee.Â
âAll of my bees are in vertical, Langstroth hives,â he says. âBees have been living in vertical, hollow trees for millions of years. So theyâre pretty well-adapted to that configuration.â
Filled with individual, moveable frames, Lorenzo Langstrothâs series of stacked supers has become ubiquitous in North America. âThe standardization in the U.S. is something that makes our beekeeping market hard to change, because thereâs only the one style and almost everyone uses it,â Peck says.
In fact, accessories such as the Hogg Halfcomb and Ross Round comb-honey systems only work in Langstroth beehives. âWith both of those, you have a sectionâa cavityâthat the bees will walk right up into, will naturally build comb into and will fill with honey,â Peck says. âThen, once the [comb-honey frames] are full, you can take them out, put them either into a round or square container, label it and bring it to your farmers market.â
Whatâs more, formic acid and certain varroa mite treatments were designed specifically for use in Langstroth equipment. âThatâs where theyâve proven that the rate at which the medicine is released from the pad is going to come out and then be ventilated by the bees and vented out of the open entrance at the right rates so that the bees survive and the mites die,â Peck says. âThose tests have not been run and validated on top bar hives or on horizontal hives or on different designs.â
Thatâs not to say such medications canât be used in other beehives. But, he adds, âThatâs not the labeled and intended use for those products.â
The Top Bar Hive
Plenty of beekeepers, looking to skip chemical pesticides and artificial foundation, have gravitated to top bar beehives. Unlike its vertical Langstroth counterpart, the top bar hive is a long, horizontal box with individual foundation bars suspended across its top. Bees attach natural comb beneath the bars. Beekeepers pull individual framesârather than heavy Langstroth supersâto inspect one at a time.
âThe modern top bar hiveâcalled the Kenyan top bar hiveâwas actually invented in Canada as part of a Canadian government and university international development grant,â Peck says. âThey designed that so they could go to sub-Saharan Africa or to Latin America where they were trying to encourage people to keep bees in order to boost their economic productivity or pollinate their crops. “In those climates, the bees tend to do pretty well.â
What about Minnesota or upstate New York?
âThe top bar hive has a tendency to get the bees working off in one direction and then move them too far away from their honey,â he says. âInstead of the heat of the cluster slowly rising and warming that next layer of honey upwards, the heat from the cluster rises, but the honey is on the other side of that top bar trough. Now the bees have to march through very cold temperatures to try to get there and get more fuel.â
Still, Bush sees at least one clear advantage: âIf youâre handy with materials and have access to scrap wood, you could probably build a top bar hive for free … [but]Â you can get natural comb by doing foundationless [frames] in any kind of box…. And you can build a long hive and put Langstroth frames in it and not have to lift boxes.
“So, you can get that without doing a top bar hive.â
The Flow Hive
For its part, the Flow hive is a variation on the Langstroth hive. âExcept the Flow hive has a super that you can harvest without having to take it off,â Bush says. He was sent early versions of the Flow hive to try before they hit the market and a few more since theyâve become commercially available.
Developed by Stuart and Cedar Anderson, the Flow hive features specially designed plastic frames paired with a crank mechanism to facilitate the honey harvest. âBasically, itâs made up of a whole bunch of strips of plastic that have half of a cell on the right and a half of a cell on the left,â Bush says. âAnd thereâs just two kinds of those, and theyâre all put together to make this long frame.
“One of the kinds of cells stays put and the other one moves up and down. So, you stick the crank in underneath and you turn it. It pops half of [the cells] up, which makes a zigzag channel, so the honey can run out and air can come in at the top.â
Bush allows the honey to run through tubes that drain into a 5-gallon bucket. Finding brood mixed in with the honey harvest hasnât been an issue.
âThe honey cells are extra thick, so that the queen wonât want to lay in them,â Bush says. âThe cells are also purposely an odd shape or an odd size, so the queen wonât want to lay in them, because itâs not quite right for a drone and itâs not quite right for a worker.â
Because honey cell cappings remain intact even during harvest, the flowing honey doesnât make a mess inside the colony. Although Bush appreciates the design, he canât justify its expense. âIf I had very many [non-Flow hive colonies], I could buy an extractor for less than I could buy two or three of these Flow hives,â he says.
But for beekeepers with just a couple of beehivesârather than a couple hundredâthe Flow hive could be worth the price.
If moneyâs no object, you could build a bee house complete with Slovenian beehives. Also known as AZ hivesânamed after their creator, Anton Ĺ˝niderĹĄiÄâSlovenian hives are made to fit neatly within a larger, often climate-controlled structure.
The hive entrances face outside the bee house. The backs of the beehives are contained inside the bee house, which is roomy enough for the beekeeper to comfortably work.Â
âAn AZ hive opens from the back, and the frames pull straight out,â Bush says. â[The beekeeper] can sit in an air-conditioned bee house where his extractor is. He can go over to the hive, pull the frames out, uncap them, put them in the extractor, extract and put them back in.
“All in his 70-degree, air-conditioned honey house. And heâs never even gone outside.â
Because individual frames are removed, rather than entire supers, thereâs no heavy lifting. Also, the ability to heat the bee house even by a little could make all the difference for beekeepers with harsh winters.
Even so, Slovenian hives arenât for everyone. âHereâs the problem with the Slovenian hive,â Bush says. âThe frames are an odd size, because thatâs what they use in Slovenia. So, they wonât fit in a typical [Langstroth frame] extractor. Another problem is that the typical foundation thatâs available here wonât fit in the frames.â
Fortunately, a Georgia-based beekeeper eventually did modify the Slovenian design so that it could accommodate Langstroth-sized frames. Nevertheless, Bushâs Slovenian hives arenât tucked inside a fancy bee house.
âIt doesnât work very well for me, mostly because I need to have them up off the ground more,â he says. âI open the door and Iâm kneeling behind it trying to reach in and pull out frames. It just kills my back and knees.â
Better to find that out on a small scale. âEven if you tried one [kind of hive] and it seemed to work, I wouldnât go out and build 1,000 of them,â Bush says. âStart small, make sure you like it and then grow it organically.â
This article appeared in Hobby Farm Home, a 2023 specialty publication produced by the editors and writers ofÂ Hobby Farms magazine. In addition to this piece, Hobby Farm Home includes recipes, crafting projects, preservation tips and more. You can purchase this volume, Hobby FarmsÂ back issues as well as special editions such asÂ Healing HerbsÂ andÂ Â Goats 101Â byÂ following this link.